In finalizing the paper I am grateful to Shaykh Husain Hamid Hassan, Rector, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Dr. Justice Tanzilur Rahman, Chief Justice, Federal Shariat Court, Mr. Khalid M. Ishaq, Advocate, and Dr. Mahmood Ghazi, for their valuable comments. In particular I am indebted to Mr. Justice Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani, Judge, Sharia Appellete Bench, Supreme Court of Pakistan and my brother Dr. Zafar Ishaq Ansari, Director General, Institute of Islamic Research, Islamabad, for a thorough review of the paper, in addition to useful explanations and guidance given to me by Mufti Muhammad Rafi Usmani of Darnl Ulum, Karachi, the errors still left are my own.

S.M. Hasanuzzaman